Crack Epidemic? 


Crack is a form of the drug cocaine. It is one of the most highly additive and destructive drugs in the world. Small doses of it are smoked into the lungs and delivered quickly to the brain. This creates a short high, followed by tiredness, depression, panic, anxiety, and brain damage. During the early 1980s, the drug first came into use in South Central, LA. It spread out through the entire country. It led to an addiction epidemic (disease affecting many people) which disproportionately hurt Black and Brown communities and led to huge increases in crime.

Who did ship it in?
How did crack cocaine become so popular that it led to an epidemic, and who brought it to South Central? The story begins in the early 1900s in Nicaragua, a country in Central America. In this country, the US took complete military control because they wanted to control the farm land. The Nicaraguans revolted against this, and were led by Augusto Cesar Sandino. He led the country briefly, but was overthrown in a coup d’etat by Anastasio Somoza. Somoza ruled the country through the military and the people did not have very many rights. He gained control in the 1930s. Nearly 40 years later, in 1979, the people revolted against Somoza. The main group that led the revolt were called the Sandinistas. They were named after Sandino. They were also communist, and this worried the US because they did not want to lose money that they put in to building up Nicaragua. So the US started to give money to some Nicaraguans to fights the communist Sandinistas, starting a civil war in Nicaragua. This led to many Nicaraguans coming to the US. The only problem was that the US did not have enough money to put aside for just Nicaragua. The US, led by Ronald Reagan, found a solution.

The solution was to sell crack cocaine in the ghettos of the US, and use the money to supply weapons to fight the communist Sandinistas. In 1981, the CIA helped ship cocaine from El Salvador to Texas and Arkansas, then to LA. The CIA also set up connections between major drug dealers in LA and Compton, and Nicaragua. The CIA sold the drugs to the drug dealers and sent the money to buy weapons for Nicaragua. The drug dealers first distributed the drugs among gangs, and then to individual smaller drug dealers. Black and Brown ghettos were targeted because they were poor. This was a time of high unemployment and people turned to drugs because they were unhappy and poor. Also, in my own personal opinion, the US was afraid of another movement like the Brown Berets and the Black Panthers. The easiest way to prevent this was to get people addicted, and therefore unable to think properly.

The Effect
The Crack Epidemic started in South Central, and spread throughout the US. It had a terrible effect. People became addicted. This led to families being broken up into pieces. Many people grew up without one or both parents because someone in their family was addicted. Later, this would lead to the end of the epidemic as fewer people started using cocaine because they saw the effects of it. Crime also increased dramatically during this time. Many low skilled workers lost their factory jobs in South Central because many factories closed during this time. They turned to drug dealing to support their family. The popular myth of a drug dealer is that they are young gang members. In fact, most gangs were not organized enough to control the drug trade. Most crack cocaine dealers were not distributing cocaine through a gang. Many were ordinary people trying to support their family. Many of these people fought over prices and territory though, and this led to a surge in the number of homicides. In addition, those that became addicted did whatever was necessary to supply their habit. This often resulted in robberies. This increase in crime is what led to many bars being put up on windows, and metal fences being built around apartments and houses. In New York City, at the height of the epidemic, 70% of all people that were arrested tested positive for crack cocaine.

After the Epidemic
The emergence of crack cocaine led to strict laws against crack cocaine. These laws were stricter than laws against powder cocaine. The so-called “War on Drugs” by the US government and the police especially targeted young Black and Brown males. This led to the US having the highest incarceration rate in the world. The high amount of people in jail is a direct result of the Crack Epidemic, which was started by the CIA. Crack has destroyed families and, in many ways, destroyed communities, which still suffer the effects of crime, drug-use, and incarceration.
 

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